Field work

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SolSeminar will be presented by Marco Cueva Manchego on Advances in the taxonomy and phylogeny of Lycianthes series Strigulosae from Peru

    Abstract. Lycianthes series Strigulosae is the most diverse group within the section Simplicipila, subgenus Polymeris, and is distributed mainly in South America. The species mainly share simple hairs, ten calyx appendages, stellate corollas, equal stamens, numerous and small seeds. Based on these characters Bitter (1919) considered this series as a well-defined group within Lycianthes. In Peru, the largest number of species is recorded, but currently the most information is restricted to the work of Bitter, who was able to study few specimens, so far there is no updated review of this group.

    ​Our work collected information from live species in the field, and from herbarium specimens. Additionally, it was possible to collect DNA material for a phylogenetic analysis and to know its relationships with other species of Clado A of Lycianthes with which they are more related. The results showed novel data regarding habitat, morphology, growth form, distribution, and relationships between species. Lycianthes serie Strigulosae in Peru is distributed mainly in the eastern slope of the Andes, the greatest diversity is found in the montane forests of central and northern Peru. Fifteen species are recognized in the present study and probably three new species. DNA analysis suggests that Lycianthes series Strigulosae as conceptualized by Bitter (1919) is not a monophyletic group and there are morphological characters that support the formation of two clades.

    When? Friday 27th Aug 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

      

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SolSeminar will be presented by Jaime Simbaqueba on Novel effectors identified from the genomic resources of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. physali (Foph): a pathogen of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) plants

    Abstract. The vascular wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. physali (Foph) is one of the most limiting factors for the production and export of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) in Colombia. Transcriptomics in Foph suggests high specificity towards cape gooseberries thus classified as a new f. sp. Then, we sequenced and assembled the genome of five strains of Foph, focusing on the validation of the presence of homologous and putative effectors unique to Foph. Phylogenomic analyses based on single-copy orthologes, showed that Foph is closely related to F. oxysporum ff. spp., associated with solanaceous hosts. We also confirmed the presence of highly identical homologous genomic regions between Foph and Fol that contain effector genes and identified six new putative effector genes, specific to Foph pathogenic strains These results suggest the polyphyletic origin of Foph and the putative independent acquisition of new candidate effectors in different clades of related strains. The novel effector candidates identified in this genomic analysis, represent new sources involved in the interaction between Foph and cape gooseberry, that could be implemented to develop appropriate management strategies.

    When? Friday 20th Aug 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    The third seminar of this new season will be presented by Jedrzej Szymanski on The Wild Metabolism of Domesticated Tomato - Dissecting the Genetic Basis of Variation in Tomato Fruit Metabolism and Pathogen Resistance

    Abstract. Wild tomato species represent a rich gene pool for numerous desirable traits lost during domestication. In our study, we exploited an introgression population developed from the wild desert-adapted tomato Solanum pennellii and the domesticated cultivar Solanum lycopersicum  to identify the genetic basis of fruit transcript and metabolic variation accompanying wild species’ trait transfer. RNA-seq expression profiling and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of 580 introgression lines resulted in the identification of genetic  loci significantly associated with levels of hundreds of transcripts and metabolites. These associations occurred in functionally coherent hotspots that represent coordinated perturbation of metabolic pathways and ripening-related processes. Integration of  these results with quantitative phenotype data highlighted a network of gene-transcript-metabolite-phenotype relationships involved in the emergence of fruit quality traits. This has been exemplified by identification of flavonoid metabolites and transcripts that constitute fruit resistance to Botrytis cinerea, and by determining specific ripening regulatory elements that promote the emergence of that trait. The approach also successfully highlighted new enzymes of the specialized metabolism responsible for changes in the nutritional and defense properties of tomato fruit. Two of these, catalyzing key steps of the steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthetic pathway, were validated here experimentally.

    When? Friday 5th Aug 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

     

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    The second seminar of this new season will be presented by Yana Kazachkova on The Bittersweet symphony: characterization of GORKY, the novel the steroidal glycoalkaloid transporter

    Abstract. Steroidal glycoalkaloids are specialized metabolites present in the Solanaceae family, where they play an important role in plant defense against pathogens and herbivores. When consumed, high concentrations of steroidal glycoalkaloids in food are associated with bitter taste and burning sensation in the throat. Alpha-tomatine is the main steroidal glycoalkaloid present in tomato plants, accumulating in early stage green fruit, leaves and flower buds. However, during tomato fruit ripening α-tomatine levels drastically decrease and its entire pool is converted to hydroxylated, glycosylated and acylated non-bitter forms called esculeosides. Nevertheless, wild accessions exist, that display high levels of α-tomatine in fully ripe fruits similar to the wild tomato species. I will present the discovery of GORKY, a novel nitrate/peptide family (NPF) transporter that exports α-tomatine and other steroidal alkaloids from the vacuole to the cytosol, where they are further metabolized during fruit ripening, rendering the fruits more palatable.

    When? Thursday 5th Aug 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    We are starting the Second Season of SolSeminarsOnline! Our first one will be presented by Remco Stam on Differences in biotic stress responses in diverse populations of Solanum chilense

    Abstract. Wild tomato species form an intriguing group of wild plant species. Each have their own specific habitats and corresponding ecological niches, though some overlap in their ranges does exist. In a patchwork of studies several dozens of different pathogen resistance properties have been identified in for a number of pathogens in several of the species. However, systematic analyses of such resistances and the underlying genetic variation within wild tomato species are sparse. We are especially interested in understanding such variation and evolution of pathogen resistance properties in a true demographic/ecological context. Our work predominantly focuses on the wild tomato species Solanum chilense. The species grows on the southern edges of the species range for wild tomato and its very specific demography, resulting from two different expansions into extreme environments make it the ideal species to study phenotypic and genetic diversity of biotic defences. In this talk, I will highlight several aspects of recent research projects. These range from genomics analyses that indicate clear resistance gene family evolution to phenotypic and biochemical studies that show tremendous variations in defence hormone responses between and within wild tomato populations.

    When? Friday 30th July 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

      

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    João Renato Stehmann & Jenny Paucar on The structure and function of the petal appendages in Schwenckieae (Solanaceae)

    Abstract. The tribe Schwenckieae comprises three genera: Heteranthia, Melananthus and Schwenckia, all with Neotropical distribution (except S. americana, also in Africa). The corolla is very peculiar, where each petal is characterized by the presence of three lobules, one median, generally developed and called appendage (lacking in Heteranthia), and two laterals. Field observation suggested that the appendages could be related to the production of scent and involved in attracting pollinators, once the corolla (and the appendages) open in the evening when a fragrance is released and close at dawn. We investigated the micromorphology and anatomical structure of the appendages and lateral petal lobules of three species of Schwenckia and one of Melananthus. We also performed histochemical tests to determine if the appendages are involved in the production of volatiles, acting as a fragrance secretory structure. Our results demonstrate the presence of secretory tissues and the production of lipids in the corolla appendages of Schwenckia and Melananthus (as well as in the lateral petal lobules), which indicate their osmogenic function. Empirical data on pollination are lacking.

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/RTcxDfGdsdc

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Loreta Freitas on Magnificent wild petunias: their evolutionary history and genetic diversity

    Abstract. The genus Petunia encompasses 15 wild species, all of them distributed in South America. This genus has recently evolved and diversified, and the corolla tube length supports the two phylogenetic main groups. Each group in Petunia had different evolutionary history and ecological drivers for diversification. The species in the long corolla tube clade diversified under the influence of pollinator interaction, inhabit low land grasslands with one exception, and, when occurring in sympatry, can intercross producing fertile and viable hybrids that may form stable populations. The species in the short corolla tube are all bee-pollinated, can be found in grasslands from the sea level to more than 1000 m in elevation, evolved under past climate shifts' influence, and no hybrids were yet formally described between them, even when they grow in sympatry. Here, some results on genus evolution and diversification, emphasizing reproductive biology, interspecific hybridization, ecological interactions, historical demography, and population structure and diversity, will be presented.

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/46yiRjroT5k

      

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Pat Bedinger & Amanda Broz on Dynamics of reproductive barriers in wild tomato species

    Abstract. The tomato clade (Solanum section Lycopersicon) is particularly amenable to the study of reproductive barriers (RB), as it contains both self-compatible (SC) and self-incompatible (SI) populations and species, with numerous examples of sympatry.  We surveyed 12 sympatric sites and identified post-pollination, pre-zygotic and post-zygotic barriers, which were often linked to mating system type.  Viable hybrid seeds were formed between sympatric pairs in only three of 28 interspecific crosses.  To better understand how changes in mating system impact interspecific and inter-population interactions, we characterized the dynamics of RBs in Solanum habrochaites, which has undergone SI to SC transitions at the species margins.  We found that loss of S-RNase was associated with SC in most marginal northern populations, and that subsequent loss of additional pistil factors weakened interspecific barriers.  In addition, pollen from a subset of these northern SC populations was rejected by pistils of central SI populations, demonstrating the formation of an inter-population RB due to loss of pollen side factors.  This suggests that mating system transitions are followed by additional loss of function mutations that influence both interspecific and inter-population RBs, and that these mutations can promote speciation by limiting gene flow between diverging and ancestral populations.

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/WSrZvzo0gSw

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Julia Dupin on Historical biogeography and the evolution of environmental niche in Datureae (Solanaceae)

    Abstract. Distributions of plant clades are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors as well as historical aspects such as center of origin. Dispersals between areas may lead to niche evolution when lineages are established in new environments. Alternatively, dispersing lineages may exhibit niche conservatism, moving between areas with similar environments. Here we tested these contrasting hypotheses in Datureae. We estimated the ancestral range of Datureae along with its historical biogeography, then characterized the environmental niche of each taxon using climatic and soil variables and tested for shifts in niche optima. Finally, we examined how these shifts relate to the niche breadth of taxa and the degree of overlap between them. Datureae originated in the Andes and subsequently expanded its range to North America and non-Andean regions of South America. The ancestral niche, and that of most Datura and Trompettia species, is dry, while Brugmansia species likely shifted toward a more mesic environment. The expansion of Datureae into North America was associated with niche conservatism, with dispersal into similarly dry areas as occupied by the ancestral lineage. Subsequent niche evolution diversified the range of habitats occupied by species in Datureae but also led to significant niche overlap among the three genera.

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/6QFdN8cMrEI

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Valérian Méline on Transcriptomic and genomic analysis reveal new insights into tomato bacterial wilt resistance

    Abstract. Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating soil borne pathogen that causes bacterial wilt disease (BWD) in over 200 different plant species, including agriculturally important crops like tomato, banana, ginger and potato. Genetic resistance is considered the most efficient way to control this pathogen, but the underlying mechanisms and genes involved in resistance are not well described. In crops, resistance to Ralstonia is quantitative, and controlled by multiple genes with small effects. Here, we took two approaches to discover genes underlying resistance to Ralstonia in tomato, meta-transcriptomic analysis and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis. Meta-transcriptomic analysis is an innovative computational approach that combines results from multiple independent studies to identify genes that consistently affect a trait of interest. We hypothesized that analyzing multiple genome-wide transcriptomes from tomato plants infected by Ralstonia in different experimental conditions would identify a common signature of tomato immune responses during BWD. Our results reveal the importance of water transport and receptor like kinases in tomato responses to Ralstonia. QTL analysis identifies regions of the genome that contribute to a trait of interest. This approach relies on large amount of phenotypic data to describe the trait of interest. Wilting is the major symptom of BWD and is challenging to phenotype, which may limit QTL detection. We developed a simple imaging platform and computational wilting metrics to quantify wilting from digital images. Using this system and a recombinant inbred line population of tomato, we digitally phenotyped nearly 1000 plants inoculated with a US strain of Ralstonia. We identify novel QTL as well as those that have been identified to other strains of Ralstonia. Together, these approaches improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and responsible genes of tomato resistance to Ralstonia.

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Janet R. Sullivan on What’s next for Physalis?

    Abstract. Physalis is an American genus of about 90 species, roughly 2/3 of which are endemic to Mexico. Some members of the genus are cultivated for their edible berries, and species have been introduced nearly worldwide either purposely or inadvertently. Physalis species are recognizable by the fruiting calyx that enlarges and inflates to completely enclose the berry, and pendent or nodding flowers borne singly at each node. Most species have an unlobed, yellow or cream-yellow, campanulate-rotate corollas with darker spots or smudges in the throat. The variable morphology of Physalis species has resulted in some taxonomic confusion and many misidentified herbarium specimens. Hair morphology is important in identifying most taxa. Since U. T. Waterfall monographed the genus in the 1950s and 1960s, research has focused on understanding taxonomically significant traits and their evolution, as well as sorting out species relationships and generic circumscription. As with understanding other Solanaceae, a collaborative and multi-faceted approach is important. This talk summarizes Physalis research to date and is intended to stimulate conversation about questions for future study.

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/dlnccEDiycQ

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Carmen Fernandez & Victor Quipuscoa on The genus Leptoglossis

    Abstract. Leptoglossis Benth. is a small genus of Solanaceae with seven species distributed in South America. Six of them are endemic to western Peru (L. acutiloba (I.M.Johnst.) Hunz. & Subils, L. albiflora (I.M.Johnst.) Hunz. & Subils, L. darcyana Hunz. & Subils, L. ferreyrae Hunz. & Subils, L. lomana (Diels) Hunz. and L. schwenkioides Benth.) and one is endemic to Argentina (L. linifolia (Miers) Benth. & Hook.f.).  Most of these species were first described as members of other genera, such as Cyclostigma Phil., Leptofeddea Diels, Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav. and Salpiglossis Ruiz & Pav. This talk will focus on using morphology and molecular data to test its monophyly and to understand the relationships within the genus.  A total of 184 specimens from BM, CORD, E, F, G, HUT, K, NY, US and USM herbaria were measured for the morphological analysis.  For the molecular analysis, leaf tissue of 22 specimens from the BM, CORD, E, HSP and USM herbaria was used for DNA extraction and 15 accessions were downloaded from GenBank to complement the molecular analysis. The results reveal the monophyly of Leptoglossis, where the Argentinian L. linifolia is sister to the Peruvian species. In addition, three species are supported as distinct based on morphology and molecular data (L. darcyana, L. linifolia and L. schwenkioides). Morphological data suggest that L. acutiloba and L. albiflora should be treated as distinct species, although support from molecular data is lacking. Morphological data suggests that L. ferreyrae and L. lomana should be treated as a single taxon. Molecular analyses with more accessions of these four species and additional data from low copy nuclear regions might help to further understand the relationships at species-level.

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/3kUGUmAAlyc

     

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Natalia Pabón-Mora on The anatomical and genetic bases of fruit diversity in Solanaceae

    Abstract. The diversity of fruit patterning and seed dispersal strategies in Solanaceae is outstanding. The family exhibits berries, capsules, drupes, pyrenes and intermediate forms of thin fleshy fruits that dehisce or thick fleshy fruits that dry out. The optimization of fruit type onto a phylogenetic framework results in a unidirectional shift, from dry fruits to fleshy fruits, in the specious Solanoideae. However, independent acquisitions of fleshy fruits have occurred at least in Cestrum and Duboisia, and reversals to dry fruits take place in members of Daturae. We have undertaken comparative anatomical studies coupled with genetic studies to better understand the evolution and development of different fruit types across Solanaceae. We have documented the carpel-to-fruit transformation in species of Brunfelsia, Brugmansia, Petunia, Nicotiana, Capsicum, Cestrum and Solanum, which have allowed us to assess key anatomical homologous and convergent features. We have also evaluated genes that are critical for fruit patterning, taking as reference the genetic network for fruit development established in Arabidopsis, where major transcription factors control valve identity (i.e. FRUITFULL), replum development (i.e. REPLUMLESS) and the differentiation of the dehiscence zones (i.e. SHATTERPROOF, INDEHISCENT and ALCATRAZ). Our data indicates that the fruit developmental genetic network in the Brassicaceae cannot be extrapolated to the Solanaceae, due to independent duplication events and changes in expression patterns for key genetic hubs. Finally, we have focused more specifically on ALC/SPT genes, as key players in the cellular identity of pericarp tissues. I will present data on their expression and function in species with different fruit type with Solanaceae. Finally, I will discuss the implications of our findings in fruit evolution studies across the family.

    When? Friday 26th March 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/Dvvgo153nHg

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Andres Moreira Muñoz on Advances in the knowledge of the Chilean Solanaceae and a taxonomic synopsis of the genus Schizanthus

    Abstract. The family Solanaceae is the fourth most diverse in Chile, both in numbers of genera and species. The Chilean flora also shows outstanding levels of endemism in the regional context. Although there are no monographs for all genera to date, a synthesis of the state of knowledge about the diversity of the family in Chile is presented here, together with an analysis of the distribution of its most diverse genera (Solanum and Nolana), and their respective richness centers. Solanum has around 63 species in Chile (44 native and 19 endemic) distributed along the latitudinal gradient from the border with Peru at 17°35'S to the hyperhumid south around 50°S. Solanum species are also found in the Juan Fernández archipelago, Desventuradas Islands and Easter Island (Rapa Nui). The rediscovery of Solanum polyphyllum Phil. has recently been reported in the Atacama mountains. Finally, a taxonomic synopsis of the genus Schizanthus Ruiz & Pav is presented. We currently recognize 17 taxa (14 species plus 3 infraspecific taxa). This taxonomic treatment is based on the analysis of specimens from 30 herbaria. The genus has its main distribution in Central Chile; only two species surpass the Andes and are found in the Argentine provinces of Mendoza and Neuquén. Three new taxa have been described: Schizanthus porrigens subsp. borealis, Schizanthus carlomunozii and their variety dilutimaculatus, all of them from the coast of the Coquimbo region. Schizanthus litoralis var. humilis, is also a new combination. Morphological details and key characters, habitat, distribution information and presence in protected areas are shown for each taxon, together with a list of representative localities for the materials examined.

    When? Friday 19th March 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/vXjesL_nfwY

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Duban Canal on The neotropical genus Cuatresia (Physalideae, Withaninae): species diversity and taxonomic novelties

    Abstract. The Neotropical genus Cuatresia (Physalideae, Solanaceae) includes 16 species distributed from Guatemala to northern Bolivia ranging from the sea level to 2800 meters. Cuatresia comprises small trees, shrubs, and herbs easily recognized by the presence of sympodial units usually difoliate, asymmetric leaves, inflorescences sessile to long peduncled, delicate flowers varying from white, yellow to violet, corollas campanulate to tubular, anthers mainly ventrifixed, and calyx mostly accresent in fruit. Phylogenetic studies indicate that Cuatresia is a monophyletic group sister to the genus Deprea. Recent explorations across the Andes mountains mainly in Colombia have resulted in new species and other taxonomic novelties. This presentation seeks to put in a common place the results of the explorations and taxonomic studies conducted in Colombia and calls the attention on the main priorities to advance in the knowledge of this extraordinary plant group.

    When? Friday 12th March 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Wtch the video here: https://youtu.be/6npHI-BAH3A

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Nahuel Palombo on Hot questions from the Andes: tracing the origin and diversification of the locoto chile (Capsicum pubescens)

    Abstract. Chile peppers (Capsicum spp.) are one of the main vegetables and spices consumed by humans. The genus comprises ca. 40 species native to tropical and temperate areas of America, including 5 cultivated species widely used all over the world. Among the domesticated species, the locoto or rocoto chile (C. pubescens) is the preferred hot chile in mid-highlands in Central-South America and it stands out because it is well adapted to low temperatures. Despite its relevance, the origin of C. pubescens has been long confusing, while knowledge of its evolution and genetic diversity is still scarce. This puzzling species is only known as a cultigen and not in the wild, where a couple of wild Andean species have been proposed as its closest allies and/or putative ancestors. In this talk, we will summarize our knowledge of the affinities and evolution of C. pubescens. Using RADseq genome-wide data from samples of its entire distribution/cultivation range in Latin America, we will present a new hypothesis on the phylogenetic relationships and genetic structure within C. pubescens. Overall, these results allow a better understanding of the affinities and distribution of the genetic diversity of the locoto chile, offering new ideas (and new questions) about its center of origin and diversification. This knowledge would be helpful for the use and conservation of this important species.

    When? Friday 5th March 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/iHzQJ05KMOI

      

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Michael Dillon & Victor Quipuscoa Silvestre on Accidental Solanologist in the driest place on Earth! & El género Nolana en Perú: diversidad y distribución

    Abstract. Accidental Solanologist in the driest place on Earth! Nolana L. ex L.f. (Nolaneae-Solanaceae) is an easily recognized genus comprised of 90 species confined to Peru and Chile, and one endemic to Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. It is among the five or six largest genera in the family and has its greatest species diversity in coastal southern Peru and northern Chile. These regions are dominated by vegetation termed lomas formations that exist as virtual islands of highly endemic communities all utilizing available moisture from fog (camanchaca or garua). While most species have their distributions in near-shore habitats, no fewer than five species can be found in habitats far removed from the oceans influence and at elevations over 1000 m. Nolana stands out as the most wide-ranging and conspicuous floristic element of these formations. In many modern classifications, members of the Nolana have been recognized at the familial (Nolanaceae) or subfamilial (Nolanoideae) rank due to its unusual carpel morphology, but data from molecular studies have provided unequivocal evidence that Nolana is nested within the Solanaceae. A phylogeny has been constructed for Nolana using a wide variety of markers and this hypothesis of relationships provides a framework establishing a classification, testing character evolution, and biogeographic reconstructions. Nolana is consistently monophyletic and purposed genera within Nolana, e.g., Alona Lindl. and Sorema Lindl. are also monophyletic. Molecular and morphological studies have led to the recognition of putative clades confined to either Chile or Peru.

    El género Nolana en Perú: diversidad y distribución. La familia Solanaceae con 120-150 especies en Arequipa, posee 42 especies endémicas agrupadas en los géneros Jaltomata, Leptoglossis, Nicandra, Nicotiana, Nolana y Solanum, de las cuales 20 son exclusivas y Nolana (78%) concentra la mayor cantidad de especies endémicas exclusivas. El género Nolana en Perú consta de 43 especies, de las cuales 40 son exclusivas de Perú, con tres especies que comparten distribución con el norte de Chile (N. adansonii (Roem. & Schult.) I.M. Johnst., Nolana gracillima (I.M. Johnst.) I.M. Johnst., N. lycioides I.M. Johnst.). En Perú crecen desde cerca del mar (N. thinophila I.M. Johnst.) hasta 4000 m de elevación (N. confinis (I.M. Johnst.) I.M. Johnst.). La mayor cantidad de especies se distribuyen en la costa como componentes de la formación de lomas (28), ocho son exclusivas de vertientes occidentales, seis comparten ambos ecosistemas y una especie crece en la isla San Gallán (Ica). En Arequipa Nolana contiene 30 especies, de las cuales 28 son endémicas y 16 son exclusivas. Las tres provincias de la costa de Arequipa Caravelí (14 spp.), Camaná (14 spp.) e Islay (12 spp.) concentran mayor diversidad y una especie en la Provincia de Castilla. Los análisis acerca del impacto del cambio climático y cambio del uso de suelo, nos indican que las especies poseen cambios negativos y positivos que debemos tener en cuenta para su conservación.

    When? Friday 19th February 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/uISgr031zpU

      

       

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Gaurav Moghe on Evolution of the diversity of defensive sugar metabolites in Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae

    Abstract. The Solanaceae and its sister Convolvulaceae families are rich with many lineage-specific metabolite classes. In my talk, I will describe the phenomenal diversity of two such compound classes – acylsugars and resin glycosides – important for plant defense. Acylsugars are found in Solanaceae but not in Convolvulaceae and resin glycosides are found in Convolvulaceae but not in Solanaceae, despite being structurally analogous. Hundreds of these compounds can be detected in mass spectrometric assays of individual plant organs. The diversity of acylsugars has been shown to have arisen through numerous mechanisms. I will focus on our recent study in the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites, where population genomics using RAD-sequencing and reproductive phenotyping of accessions across Peru and Ecuador helped us determine the origin of within-species acylsugar diversity. We found that the unique geography of the region, namely the Amotape Huancabamba Zone in tropical Andes, substantially influenced population differentiation and evolution of new phenotypes. This talk will highlight the different molecular and ecological factors that influence metabolic evolution in the Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae families.

    When? Friday 26th February 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/67Rvtd7yZck

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Andres Orejuela on Roots in the clouds: Evolution of epiphytism in Solanaceae

    Abstract. Epiphytes are non-parasitic plants that live above the ground without a connection to the soil. Epiphytes show a variety of adaptations to living without access to soil water, including aerial roots, tank life form, CAM photosynthesis, tubers, and ant associations. Details of the evolution of epiphytes and their adaptations remain poorly understood. This talk will focus on exploring the evolution of epiphytes in Solanaceae, where c. 80 epiphytes are found in the tribe Solandreae across 11 genera, and a few epiphytic species in Solanum and Lycianthes. Results based on a densely sampled full plastome phylogeny of Solandreae show that the epiphytic life form has evolved at least three times in the tribe itself, and at least two times in other parts of the family. Several morphological traits are associated with the evolution of epiphytic life form, including tubers, ant associations, and diversity of corolla forms and colourations linked to pollination syndrome switching. A total of 20 species remains to be described in this poorly known group and much more remains to be learnt from these silent kings and queens of the cloud forest canopies.

    When? Friday 12th February 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/jZqQu4LG9Qo

      

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Lidor Shaar-Moshe on Are homologous cell types translationally conserved across plant species? Lessons from tomato, rice, and Arabidopsis root atlases

    Abstract. All vascular plant roots are arranged with a stem cell niche at the root tip and cell types that form concentric cylinders at the radial axis. Based on morphological and expression data, many plant cell type populations are considered homologous (i.e., derived from a common ancestor). However, the degree to which root cell type developmental programs are molecularly or functionally conserved across plant species is, as of yet, unknown. Here, we generated translatome profiles of the meristematic cortex, endodermis (which includes the quiescent center), vasculature and meristematic zone of tomato (S. lycopersicum) and rice (O. sativa) roots and compared these with previously published translatome profiles of A. thaliana roots. Principal component analyses show that the translatome profiles of the meristematic zone from all three species group together and are distinct from the other cell populations. To identify similarities between homologous tissues, we focused on genes with conserved cell/tissue-enriched expression among the three species. Using expressologs (homologs with correlated expression profiles), we found a subset of genes that showed conserved enriched expression in the root meristem. Furthermore, the meristem had the highest number of overlapping enriched ontology terms compared with the other cell populations demonstrating conserved function. Finally, genes with low expression variation across cell/tissue types are enriched for housekeeping genes as previously reported for animals. Collectively, our results demonstrate cases in which higher-order organizational properties that determine similarities in the expression profile of homologous tissues likely reside in the “architecture” of their associated networks.

    When? Friday 5th February 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk again here: https://youtu.be/cN8yB4tD0AU

        

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Steven Dodsworth on The recent radiation of Nicotiana section Suaveolentes in Australia: cytogenetic, ecological, and phylogenomic insights

    Abstract. Nicotiana section Suaveolentes represents over half of the genus, an enigmatic group of plants with an allotetraploid origin. Species are mostly distributed across Australia, with a few taxa in the South Pacific (New Caledonia, Tonga, Marquesas Islands), and one endemic to Namibia. Their evolution has been previously intractable, with low or no resolution in standard phylogenetic markers, and limited verified wild material available. Collections amassed over the past decade have been the foundation of a revised phylogenomic framework for section Suaveolentes, using Hyb-Seq and RADseq approaches, and in the face of incomplete lineage sorting. Chromosome number appears to have dropped independently a number of times and is uncorrelated with genome size, which has generally reduced as part of the diploidisation process. From a polyploid origin (n = 24) species represent a dysploid series with reducing chromosome numbers (n = 24 – 15) almost down to the diploid number for the genus. Intriguingly, the highest concentration of species is found in the arid centre of Australia, and species show different strategies for coping with drought conditions. Using ecological niche modelling we show that pairwise niche overlap correlates with phylogenetic distance, but that low levels of overlap are found overall, suggesting a mixed picture of niche conservatism and a possible role for niche divergence in speciation. Overall these results paint N. section Suaveolentes as a group undergoing recent radiation, with concomitant changes in genome size, chromosome number and ecology underpinning their diversification.

    When? Friday 29th January 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/ILbFFSGuQPg

          

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Esther van der Knaap on Harnessing Crop Improvement Traits from Semi-Domesticated Tomato Accessions

    Abstract. The trajectory of fruit and vegetable domestication is rarely thoroughly understood. Moreover, the selection of traits that were associated with their domestication may have differed over evolutionary time. Tomato was initially domesticated from wild relatives in Ecuador and Peru1. After that, semi-domesticated accessions traversed north to Central America and southern North America for further domestication into the varieties we know today1. Diversity studies of the subgroups show large genetic variation in certain semi-domesticated accessions, particularly from Ecuador and Peru. The genetic variation in these semi-domesticates is similar to wild accessions, contrary to highly domesticated and elite germplasm. Even though the fruits of these genetically diverse semi-domesticates are relatively small and sometimes unpalatable, we developed populations to determine the inheritance of fruit quality traits that could be used for crop improvement. We discovered novel loci for fruit weight that led to the transition from one phylogenetic subclade to another.  Moreover, we found evidence that some beneficial alleles for fruit quality may have been left behind during domestication.

    When? Friday 22nd January 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch again this talk here: https://youtu.be/CRaSkYzh2EI

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Gloria Barboza & Carolina Carrizo García on A journey through the world of ‘axí’ (Capsicum): taxonomy, conservation, phylogeny

    Abstract. Wild crop relatives have been playing enormously important roles both in the depiction of plant genomes and the genetic improvement of their cultivated counterparts. Chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) are high value crops consumed daily by near a quarter of the world’s population. We will present a complete framework of these plants through a journey exploring its diversity, taxonomy, conservation and phylogeny. Capsicum comprises 42 species distributed from southern United States to Brazil, Paraguay and Central Argentina, including 5 domesticated species widely used all over the world. After years of studying this genus and based on extensive examinations of collections and field explorations, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the whole genus diversity and evolution, the key characters for the identification of the species, and their conservation assessments. We also present the most recent hypothesis on its phylogenetic structure. Our work have contributed immensely to resolving several fundamental questions, particularly those related to characterization and circumscription of Capsicum species, phylogenetic relationships, evolution and cytological features.

    When? Friday 18th December 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    watch this talk here> https://youtu.be/ZP-mmTcpgQI

          

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Joseph Jacobs & Flavio Ramos on Mejoramiento del tomatillo, Physalis philadelphica  en el siglo 21 at HMClauase: A breeding program rooted in place, focused on bringing value, and linking new technology to deep agronomic practice

    Abstract. ​For more than a decade we at HMClause have bred tomatillos targeting the Mexican market. Traditionally, tomatillo improvement has been done with bulk breeding approaches due to the presence of  incompatibility in criollo, land based populations. Early on in our selection process we identified self-compatible variants with which to build new breeding populations. As breeders we focus on traits that bring value to our customers from growers, to the processors to the people that buy their tomatillos at Centros de Abastos to make their salsa de tomate. We try to harmonize market needs with our love of tomatillo and the essential place it has in the Mexican culinary palette. Join us to learn more about the importance of tomatillos in Mexico and how HMClause uses a regionally based approach linked to global technical support to bring new tomatillo varieties (even ideotypes) to the Mexican market space.

    When? Friday 11th December 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    To watch their talk again: https://youtu.be/6uoiRJF3wu4

        

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Peter Poczai on Plastid Genome Evolution in Solanaceae: past, present and future

    Abstract. Stroll through a flowered park, dip into a cool summer lake, or hike in a dense forest and you will find yourself in good company. I am talking about plants, of course, but more specifically about chloroplasts—the factories of photosynthesis and hubs of countless crucial biochemical reactions. Yes, chloroplasts (and plastids as a whole) are one awesome eukaryotic organelle. Their pigments alone provide the world with much of its beautiful and mellifluous colours, not to mention their clever and life-sustaining ability to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugar through a quantum mechanical process. These compact cellular organelles are preserving well in dried plant material (herbaria) for centuries allowing us to investigate important evolutionary biological questions in the postgenomic era. The megadiverse plant family Solanaceae has long been connected to chloroplast genome research since the publication of the first complete nucleotide genome sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). High throughput sequencing technologies are providing us the opportunity to explore plastid genome evolution, adaptation and other important questions. Solanaceae plastid genomes sequenced so far showed a typical quadripartite structure without specific structural rearrangements, however, large plastid genomes with extensive inverted repeat boundary expansions exist in Solanaceae. These could have interesting biological implications in future plastid genome research in Solanaceae.

    When? Friday 4th December 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch his talk again here: https://youtu.be/VE-gdjO5yTU

        

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Federico Roda on Can omics uncover the mysteries of Angel's Trumpets?

    Abstract. For millennia members of the Solanaceae family have been used for curing and divination in traditional medicines around the world. These uses are often associated to the presence of secondary metabolites known as Tropane Alkaloids (TAs), which today are the basis of a multi-million-dollar pharmacological industry. In my lab we study an underexploited source of TAs with a mysterious history, the flamboyant Angel´s Trumpets (Brugmansia spp.). These plants were sacred for numerous indigenous communities in South America and their use led to the domestication of medicinal cultivars. The phenotypic diversity of these cultivars as well as their cultural importance called the attention of the “fathers” of chemical ethnobotany, who started their study in the 1950s. These plants constitute an excellent model to search for the genetic basis of TA production but unfortunately their conservation is threatened by socio-economic changes. In this talk will summarize our knowledge of the evolution of Brugmansia and its intricate relationship with humans. I will articulate that the combination of genomics and metabolomics can help revealing unknown aspects of this relationship while providing biotechnological tools for TA production.

    When? Friday 27th November 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/aHHM2eqCosE

       

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Gabriela Doria on Petal cell shape and flower-pollinator interaction in Nicotiana (Solanaceae)

    Abstract. Petal epidermal cell shape has been shown to affect pollination success in flowering plants. Conical epidermal cells may increase grip for insect pollinators and enhance flower colouration compared to non-conical cells. Nicotiana presents a diverse range of petal cell shapes. Interestingly, sister species in at least two phylogenetically distinct clades of the genus have contrasting petal epidermal cell shapes (conical vs. non-conical). This provides a unique opportunity to explore the mechanisms involved in petal cell shape differentiation in sister species. I use a combination of molecular, morphological and behavioural ecology tools to study the development, evolution and function of petal cell shape in two clades (Section Alatae and Section Paniculatae) of Nicotiana. Differential expression of R2R3-MYB subgroup 9 transcription factors, rather than amino acid sequence differences in these molecules, might explain contrasting cell shapes between sister species.  Flower choice experiments with model pollinator Bombus terrestris, using biomimetic replicates of petals of Nicotiana species, indicate that the bumblebees can discriminate flowers of contrasting texture using visual cues alone as well as tactile cues alone. This investigation improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in petal epidermal cell morphogenesis and of the functional implications of petal cell shape in the interaction flower-pollinator in Nicotiana.

    When? Friday 20th November 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk again here: https://youtu.be/N41cVMCnJAk

        

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Corri Hamilton on ​Xylem sap from wilt-resistant tomato inhibits growth of the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum

    Abstract. The soilborne plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) causes lethal bacterial wilt disease (BWD) by colonizing water-transporting xylem vessels. Rs reduces crop yields at every level of production from small- to large-scale farming operations. Rs is a geographically diverse species complex that infects over 200 different plant species including banana, ginger, potato and tomato. Plaw1nting resistant crop varieties is the optimal way to control plant diseases, and most BWD resistance in tomato derives from breeding line H7996. This resistance is conferred by several quantitative trait loci and the underlying mechanism(s) are not understood. Moreover, some Rs strains can overcome H7996 resistance, increasing our need to understand this form of resistance. Tomato xylem sap is relatively low in nutrients, and Rs grew equally poorly in sap harvested from either wilt-susceptible or wilt-resistant tomatoes. However, sap collected from wilt-susceptible tomato plants that were infected with Rs supported better bacterial growth than sap from uninfected plants, suggesting this pathogen manipulates the plant to improve its xylem habitat. We hypothesize that xylem sap from BWD-resistant plants restricts Rs virulence by chemically inhibiting pathogen growth, not by carbon starvation. To test this hypothesis, we are characterizing compounds found in H7996 xylem sap that contribute to BWD resistance. These findings will further our understanding of how this devastating plant pathogen succeeds or fails in the harsh tomato xylem environment.

    When? Friday 13th November 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch again this talk: https://youtu.be/cYjw_xmOipw

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Lynn Bohs on ​Spicy Solanaceae potpourri: an update on recent and current projects

    Abstract. Much has been learned about the systematics and phylogeny of many Solanaceae since I started my career on the taxonomy of the family over 30 years ago. This talk will summarize some recently completed and on-going projects, including the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of the genera Capsicum, Lycianthes, Witheringia, and Cuatresia. A collaborative project with Gloria Barboza, Ellen Dean, and Sandy Knapp is examining the species-level taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Capsicum, which includes the chili peppers and their relatives, and its sister genus Lycianthes. The framework phylogeny of this clade shows that Capsicum is monophyletic, but the monophyly of Lycianthes is unclear due to discordant topologies depending on which genes are analyzed. A spectacular non-pungent new species of Capsicum from the Andes is in the process of being described. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the morphologically unique species Cuatresia anomala actually belongs to Lycianthes. Another collaborative project with Judy Stone is examining the taxonomy and phylogeny of Witheringia. A framework phylogeny has been completed and there are at least two new species to describe, but the rich and poorly understood diversity of Witheringia in Colombia has not been well sampled.

    When? Friday 6th November 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch again this talk here: https://youtu.be/oq57s9rH5Nk

        

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Leandro Giacomin on ​Solanaceae systematics and taxonomy and the Amazon: what do they have in common?

    The Amazon is known to harbor the world´s largest rainforest and an outstanding plant diversity that has captured the attention of scientists for centuries. Although efforts have been taken to document its flora, immense gaps of botanical knowledge are still known to exist and tackling those necessarily goes through local human resources training and working in collaboration with local people. Human resources training in-site is particularly challenging as most gaps lie far from the few important scientific centers and even in those, resources can be scarce in many ways. As a facilitating strategy to human resources training, a primary focus in a well know group might allow some advantages. Solanaceae poses as an interesting candidate to help in such a task, as a small to medium-size family in the Amazon basin, with 151 reported taxa, most somewhat well documented in taxonomic treatments. A reasonable number of species and a not completely obscure taxonomy make Solanaceae local floras an example of perfect tool to train young undergraduate researchers. On the other hand, the use of innovative tools such as interactive electronic keys and photographic guides are powerful tools to engage local people on plant conservation and to promote scientific literacy. For higher level training, a holistic systematics and evolution formation is required, and groups within Solanum that lack comprehensive phylogenetic and biogeographic work are used (i.e. clades Brevantherum and Geminata). Results on those initiatives and integration strategies among them will be shown and discussed with the audience.

    When? Friday 30th October 3 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kh0Wx4MebdM

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Chris Martine & Angela McDonnell on ​Sexual fluidity, species discovery, and #scicomm: The prickly solanums of the Australian Monsoon Tropics

    Abstract. Just 1% of species in Solanaceae exhibit a dioecious breeding system, with the majority of the  occurrences happening within the "spiny solanums" of the Australian Monsoon Tropics. In these species, morphologically hermaphrodite individuals produce inaperturate pollen that renders them functionally female. The "S. dioicum group", consisting of functionally dioecious taxa and a set of andromonoecious relatives has been a subject of systematic study for decades, yet the relationships among groups of species and, thus, the patterns in sexual system evolution are still poorly understood. We aim to illuminate the evolutionary history of the lineage using targeted enrichment data, evaluate areas and potential sources of phylogenetic conflict, reconstruct the evolution of diverse breeding systems, and revisit previous hypotheses regarding reproductive characters. We include 172 individuals representing 102 taxa and report on data obtained via the Angiosperms 353 probe set. Against a background of hermaphroditism, we detect one origin of andromonoecy, one or two origins of dioecy, and one possible reversal to the hermaphroditic state within a revised "S. dioicum group". Our study provides a framework of evolutionary relationships in Australian spiny Solanum; most inferred species relationships are well supported across multiple analyses while the detected discordance among gene trees highlights a complex history that includes rapid speciation, incomplete sorting of ancestral variation, and hybridization. We highlight the evolution of diverse reproductive traits and suggest that sexual system transitions in this group are not only more common than previously thought, but also underlie an ongoing radiation requiring further taxonomic effort - an effort that, when coupled with creative approaches to science communication and media relations, can lead to unexpected outcomes and interdisciplinary opportunities.

    When? Friday 23th October 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk again here: https://youtu.be/QrJdX59T6Y0

        

     

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Margaret Frank on ​Finding a Sol mate: molecular basis for graft-compatible combinations in the Solanaceae

    Abstract. Grafting is a widely-used technique that involves physically joining independent genotypes into a single plant in order to capture new, agriculturally beneficial phenotypes, such as optimized plant architecture, enhanced abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, altered reproductive timing, and increased yield. Graft-compatibility, the ability for two genotypes to unite through the formation of xylem and phloem connections, is essential for the discovery and establishment of new graft combinations. Although graft technology has been around for over two millennia, the factors that determine graft-compatible versus incompatible combinations remain poorly understood. To gain insight into the molecular and genetic basis for graft-compatibility, and enable the predictive selection of beneficial graft combinations, we tested the compatibility of domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with other model species within the Solanaceae (e.g. potato, eggplant, pepper, Nicotiana benthemiana, tobacco, and petunia). This screen led to the identification of Pepmato and Tomepper, a reciprocal graft combination between tomato and pepper that exhibits consistent graft-failure. Interestingly, pepper-tomato graft combinations are capable of surviving, but fail to form functional vascular connections, making this an excellent model system to explore the molecular basis for intercellular communication during vascular regeneration in grafted plants. In this presentation, we track anatomical, physiological, and molecular changes that track graft junction failure in pepmato and tomepper. Ultimately, this work will contribute towards a deeper understanding of how graft compatibility is determined, which can enable the application of predictive genotypic graft combinations.

    When? Friday 16th October 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

         

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Gustavo Silva on Wild tomato ecological genomics. Elucidating adaptation process to stressful environments

    Abstract. The study of mechanisms that allow species to adapt to their local environment is a long-standing question that remains a central topic in evolutionary biology. Currently, the disentangling of genetic mechanisms involved in adaptation processes related to rapid environmental change is receiving special attention. This knowledge has enormous applications in face of global warming such as crop breeding and biodiversity conservation. The wild tomato lineage provides an excellent example of recent diversification process related to wide differences in environmental conditions and strong periodic climatic oscillations such as El Niño phenomenon. Within this group, the species Solanum chilense has received special attention because occurs in broad environmental gradients such as coastal and highland hyper-arid environments around the Atacama Desert. Moreover, this species shows key features like high heterozygous genome and auto-incompatible reproductive system which makes it an ideal system to extend current analytical models to study adaptation. Here, I will present an overview of the studies implemented in S. chilense addressing adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress and show new insights arisen from the integration of niche modelling, historical demographic inference and genome scan approaches. The likely origin area of S. chilense is a mesic lowland region around south Peru and north Chile, diverging from marginal populations of S. peruvianum. Further southern expansion process occurred by two independent events following coastal and highland routes with about an order of magnitude of time difference. That time difference can be related to the contrasting characteristics between the available habitats on the coast and the highland and the source of local adaptive variants from either standing variation or newly emerged mutations.

    When? Friday 9th October 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/EvuDoZp9JpQ

           

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Boris Igić on ​Self-incompatibility in Solanaceae and Beyond

    Abstract.The majority of flowering plants are hermaphrodites. Nevertheless, many cannot self-fertilize, because they employ a system to recognize and reject their own pollen, termed self-incompatibility. The loss and gain of self-incompatibility is governed by a combination of ecological and genetic processes, including mate limitation and polyploidy. I will provide a broad overview and then use an array of empirical and theoretical data and methods to show that self-incompatibility (a suite of mechanisms for avoidance of self-fertilization) is frequently lost, despite being associated with long-term evolutionary success. Finally, I will discuss the general evolutionary implications, in light of ongoing work establishing the distribution of the RNase-based "Solanaceae mechanism" of self-incompatibility across core eudicots.

    When? Friday 2nd October 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/-xK_3ezrKh0

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Iris Peralta on ​Integrative taxonomy and classification of wild tomatoes and close relatives, insights for conservation and use of genetic resources in plant breeding

    Abstract. An integrative approach to taxonomy is essential not only to understand the diversity and evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms, but also to generate a classification. A comprehensive treatment of wild tomatoes and close relatives, combining different evidences with a morphology-based taxonomy, lead to propose a new classification. Predictability is an important quality of a classification that can be verified in recent studies based on molecular, genomic and transcriptomic data of wild tomatoes. Furthermore, these new evidences revealed that adaptive genetic variation leads to a rapid diversification in the tomato lineage and ecological differentiation among species. Thirteen wild tomato species (Solanum Sect. Lycopersicon) and four close relatives (Solanum setc. Lycopersicoides and Juglandifolia) are valuable genetic resources because they are closely related to cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., one of the world's leading vegetable crop. A predictable classification, based on multiple and complementary perspectives, can contribute to explore new hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships, and provide insights for species conservation in their natural habitats and germplasm banks, and also contribute to a better use of genetic resources in plant breeding.

    When? Friday 25th September, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch her talk again here: https://youtu.be/_YNpkjip3hY

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Rebecca Hilgenhof on ​Morphological trait evolution in the mega-diverse genus Solanum L. & the key to tame the monster

    Abstract. Despite the large size of the genus, Solanum has been thought to be relatively conserved in its floral diversity because all members of the genus are buzz-pollinated with a consistent floral ‘Bauplan’ linked to the generalist pollination strategy by buzzing bees. Vegetative traits vary much more, however, reflecting the diverse habitats occupied by Solanum species with high levels of polymorphism observed even within species. This is in contrast to the general evolutionary theory that reproductive characters are expected to show higher evolutionary rates because they evolve under sexual selection. I set to quantify rates of morphological evolution across Solanum using 16 vegetative and reproductive traits recorded from taxonomic monographs and online resources, and a supermatrix phylogeny of Solanum based on two nuclear and seven plastid regions. Results show high transition rates in six reproductive and two vegetative characters: corolla colouration, filament-anther ratio, anther length, filament length, fruit colour, stone cells in fruits, trichome type and leaf type. The higher rates of morphological evolution in traits linked to pollination indicate an unexpected strong role of pollinator-mediated selection in the buzz-pollinated group. I also present a freely available multi-access key to Solanum clades and to 342 species of non-spiny solanums (members of Thelopodium clade & Clade I), which I constructed, based on the morphological data gathered during my study.

    When? Friday 18th September, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk again here: https://youtu.be/exnNezltJy8

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Luke Wheeler on An integrative approach to studying the evolution of floral pigmentation

    Abstract. Flower color is an essential feature of the angiosperm lineage. Under the hood, flower color phenotypes are derived from several biosynthetic pathways; most notably the anthocyanin pathway, which produces three main classes of red, purple, and blue pigments. The anthocyanin pathway is very old and broadly conserved across the angiosperms and the functional components and topology of the pathway are well-studied. Together these features make the anthocyanin pathway an excellent model system to study the evolution of complex phenotypes. Here, I will discuss three ongoing projects that use a variety of methods applied across a range of biological scales to study the evolution of flower color. First, we are finishing the collection of a large dataset of RNA-seq, reflectance spectroscopy, and pigment chromatography data for species sampled from across the Petunieae clade of Solanaceae. Using a phylotranscriptomic approach, we have reconstructed the phylogeny of this clade and set the stage for a detailed study of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying transitions in floral pigmentation. Second, we are using pigment composition data and an RNA-seq segregant analysis, with individuals from a blue-flowered by red-flowered backcross experiment, to identify the transcription factor controlling a key anthocyanin pathway gene in flowers of the genus Iochroma. Finally, we have constructed a computational framework to simulate the evolution of the anthocyanin pathway, which we are using to understand observed patterns of genetic hotspots and make predictions for future empirical studies. This approach is flexible and can be readily extended to incorporate various aspects of pathway structure, dynamics, and regulation, as well as various models of mutation and selection. Combining all of the approaches outlined here lays the groundwork for understanding flower color evolution across scales; from molecular to macro-evolutionary.

    When? Friday 11th September, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/OhSREoCemU0

                

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Edeline Gagnon on Implication of phylogenomic analyses for macroevolutionary patterns in the large  genus Solanum (Solanaceae)

    Abstract. The increasing availability of phylogenomic data is revealing incongruent topologies in gene trees between and even within genomes. Some of these incongruences indicate hard polytomies that are due to underlying biological processes may remain impossible to fully resolve. The incongruent topologies and hard polytomies could mean that multiple, alternative topologies will have to be used to explore macro-evolutionary patterns. Here, I investigate these questions in the large and economically important genus Solanum L. which, with c. 1,248 accepted species, is one of the ten largest flowering plant genera. To provide an evolutionary framework for the large research community working on the genus, our lab built a new supermatrix phylogeny comprising 61% of all accepted species (750 spp.), based on two nuclear (ITS and WAXY) and seven plastid markers. To assess whether the recovered topology is robust, we compared results with full plastome analysis of 141 species and nuclear genome target-capture analysis of 39 species. All datasets contained species from all the major clades of Solanum. I also explored the effect of taxon sampling, missing data, phylogenetic analyses, and data partition scheme on the recovered species tree. Results show discordance in the relationships between major clades. The latter have a minor impact on the taxonomic classification of major and minor clades but might affect the interpretation of trait analyses across the genus. I briefly discuss how this will impact future plans on phylogenetic comparative analyses using trait and occurrence data from Solanaceae Source which contains over 88,000 geo-referenced and taxonomically verified herbarium specimens for Solanum.

    When? Friday 4th September, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk here: https://youtu.be/Ud6MjoeiNDM

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Virginia Sanchez Puerta on The tribe Hyoscyameae: somatic hybrids, phylogenetics, and horizontal gene transfer

    Abstract. Plant mitochondrial genomes are remarkable for several reasons. A hallmark of angiosperm mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) is the highly dynamic and recombinationally active nature of plant mtDNAs. This recombination activity facilitates the incorporation of foreign sequences in a process known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Somatic hybrids are a great system to study mtDNA recombination and the process of HGT given that mitochondria fuse during somatic hybrid production and their genomes to recombine. We chose Solanaceae as our experimental system because it is the premiere system for producing somatic hybrid plants that have been widely used in Solanaceae breeding programs. We chose Nicotiana tabacum and members of the tribe Hysocyameae for somatic hybrid production and serendipitously became interested on the systematics of the tribe. We will present our advances on mitochondrial genome recombination mechanisms, phylogenetic relationships within the tribe and a re-evaluation of HGT events affecting the mtDNA.

    When? Friday 28th August, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch again this talk here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TkzTXzZHG58

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Xavier Aubriot on Towards a taxonomic revision of tropical Asian spiny solanums

    Abstract. With more than 500 species, the ‘spiny solanums’ clade (Solanum L. subgenus Leptostemonum Bitter) corresponds to the most species rich of the major Solanum lineages. For the past decade, hypotheses on the evolutionary history of the group have been gradually refined. But as could be expected for such a large lineage, improvements of our understanding of spiny solanums taxonomy have been even more gradual. Tropical Asian spiny solanums in particular are particularly understudied, not having been revised in their entirety since the 19th century. If the Asian eggplant (S. melongena L.) and a couple of related taxa are both well-known and extensively collected, many species are in urgent need of revision. Over the past 6 years, extensive examination of historical collections has led to the recognition of 36 native species for tropical Asia, including two newly described species; for each species comprehensive nomenclatural treatments and IUCN Red List assessments will be provided. Phylogenetic and biogeographic affinities of the Asian species are clearly composite (Africa, Australia and South-America) and tropical Asia seems to act as a dispersal route between the landmasses of Africa and Australia; but these hypotheses will need confirmation using an improved phylogenetic backbone and a broader species sampling.

    When? Friday 21th August, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk again: https://youtu.be/wpq3ZZs9sg4

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    This SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Muhammad Adil on Production of high valued medicinal compounds using plant cell tissue and organ culture

    Abstract. Today’s market demand for natural products is higher and the conventional practices to get the herbs from wild or cultivate in fields are inefficient to meet the market demand. The alternative approaches such as plant tissue organ and cell cultures (PTOC) are believed to be the promising and inexpensive. The PTOC approach offers the opportunity to sustain the standardized natural products of uniform quality and ensures to be free of agrochemicals, toxins or other environmental pollutant. Number of studies using in-vitro tissue culture approaches have extensively been studied and adopted for uniform and continuous supply of the natural products. There are companies taking advantages of this technology which offers the opportunity to produce medicinal compounds continuously and in limited space rather than cultivating on hectares of land. Despite these advantages the PTOC system needs optimization and there are factors which regulates plant cell machinery to process primary metabolites for the secondary metabolites (medicinal compounds) production. These factors are plant growth regulators (PGRs), substrate type and concentration, light condition, elicitors and precursors feeding. Additionally, the bioreactor design also plays important role to ensure the large scale production using plant cells and organs cultures.

    When? Friday 14th August, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk again: https://youtu.be/SipJ9WA9yBY

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Next SOL Seminar Online will be presented by Leonie C. Moyle on The history and origin of natural variation in the charismatic wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium and its close Galápagos relatives

    Abstract. The Solanaceae is known for its immense phenotypic and numerical diversity, making it an especially fruitful group for understand mechanisms of trait and species diversification.  We have been using comparative and population genomics as a framework to understand the origin and distribution of natural variation in wild tomatoes and other Solanaceous groups, to infer the genetics of complex natural traits, and to understand the forces that drive diversification at micro- and macroevolutionary scales. Here I’ll focus on some of our recent work in the wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium­, and its two close relatives endemic to the Galápagos archipelago--S. cheesmaniae and S. galapagense. Associations between genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data and features of the abiotic climate indicate natural selection plays a strong role in shaping genotypic variation across the home range of S. pimpinellifolium in mainland South America. These SNP data, in combination with historical and contemporary field collections on the Galápagos, also reveal a recent history of invasion of S. pimpinellifolium onto the Galápagos archipelago—likely from human introduction—as well as clear evidence of hybridization between invasive and endemic species.  Interestingly, genomic patterns of shared ancestry indicate that hybridization has enabled some invasive individuals to adopt both the fruit color genes and the orange fruit color that is characteristic of the endemic island species. This inferred case of phenotypic convergence via hybridization suggests that orange fruit color might be selectively favored specifically on the Galápagos—a hypothesis that is testable with future work both in the lab and the field.

    When? Friday 7th August, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Watch this talk again: https://youtu.be/oPZeq_AikNg

                       

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    This SOL Seminar Online was presented by Paul Gonzales on How many Salpichroa species there are, and where are they?: A brief review the Andean genus

    Abstract. The genus Salpichroa (Solanaceae) currently has 22 species, characterized by a climbing habit, is a distinctive genus and easy to recognize for its cordate leaves and hanging trumpet-shaped flowers. Salpichroa is endemic of America with distribution along the Andes between 1500 and 5100 m elevation from Mexico to Argentina between 30° N and 37° S, with the highest species richness between 7° S and 17° S in Peru. Species inhabit mainly shrubsland, forest, and in rocky vegetation. In this work, the taxonomy and distribution of the genus are reviewed. The most important characters for the differentiation of species are related with floral morphology. In relation to the analysis of distribution patterns, the Andean identity of the genus is confirmed, and it is determined that the greatest diversity of Salpichroa species is found in southern Peru.

    When? Friday 24th July, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Youtube link to watch the talk again: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e3uUQljnIXs&t=62s

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    This SOL Seminar Online was presented by Stacey D. Smith on How to be colorful: Lessons from Solanaceae

    Abstract. Although the first papers identifying the genes underlying the pigment-based coloration in plants come from Arabidopsis, snapdragon and maize, the Solanaceae has arguably taught us the most about how plants produce pigments and regulate expression. In this talk, I’ll give a broad historical overview of discoveries about plant color arising from research in the family, spanning important model organisms such as petunia, Nicotiana, and tomato.  I’ll also highlight some recent work from our lab on floral pigmentation linking these fundamental discoveries to macroevolutionary patterns of color variation. Even after three decades of color research in the family, we continue to discover new mechanisms responsible for the incredible diversity of hues and patterns. I’ll close by talking about some of the important gaps remaining to be explored, such as the regulation of carotenoid-based color and its interplay with the better understood red, purple and blue anthocyanins.

    When? Friday 17th July, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Youtube link to watch the talk again: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-v-CgEp5v8&t=3s

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    The second SOL Seminar Online was presented by Richard Olmstead on Molecular phylogeny and classification of Solanaceae: A historical perspective

    Abstract. Due to their economic importance, Solanaceae were an early subject of molecular research.  Consequently, some early phylogenetic inferences appeared before molecular approaches to phylogeny were common in systematics.  Solanaceae was one of the first families to have a family-wide molecular phylogeny based on DNA data.  The development of our understanding of Solanaceae phylogeny was built over 30 years to be one of the most completely studied families of their size.  This detailed phylogeny has led to a revised classification that reflects evolutionary relationships and to an increased understanding of global patterns of biogeography.

    When? Friday 10th July, 4 pm (GMT+1)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Youtube link to watch the talk again: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FBhtuuKK_ZA

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    The first SOL Seminar Online was presented by Sandra Knapp and Tiina Särkinen​ on Why monograph a monster like Solanum?

    Abstract. Large plant genera like Solanum –with more than  1000 species – tend to be “where angels fear to tread”; their sheer size and difficulty of biting off doable chunks means that many have not been treated monographically in their entirety since the 19th century. A focus on projects with three- to five-year time spans can lead botanists to focus on smaller, more tractable groups – leaving the “monsters” to languish in confusion and without a globally unified view. Working in larger teams, using phylogenetic methods to define doable chunks for study, taking advantage of the burgeoning new digital resources available – all these have helped to overcome, at least in part, the challenges of working with Solanum. But no approach is the silver bullet! Even though they present challenges, large genera like Solanum also represent golden opportunities for investigating evolutionary and ecological questions, such as nature of species and speciation, genome evolution, evolution of rarity, niche axis and traits, host-pathogen and plant-insect co-evolution. Globally integrated views of plant diversity are an iterative enterprise, with small parts building a unified whole.

    When? Friday 3rd July, 4 pm (GMT+1, see the table for different time zones here)

    The zoom link to join the meeting is https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/94333146166 Meeting ID: 943 3314 6166, password: Solanaceae

    Youtube link to watch the talk again: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N30mqeEeQhE&feature=emb_title

  • Collection trip:
    Date collected:
    Participants:

    Physaloid seminars are moving to include all Solanaceae from July! All seminars will be posted on the YouTube channel previously set up for the series by Chelsea Pretz and Rocio Deanna, so if you miss the live event you can catch up easily. 

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith