2n = ploidy missing =24 voucher missing = (Spooner & Hijmans 2001)
Chile: Central Chile, from Región V- Región IX, in the foothills and mid to upper slopes of the Andes Mountains; in areas of low, dry scrub forest, along streams or in the mists of waterfalls, always in full sun and usually in rocky soils, 4340-2500 m.
The intrageneric relationships of sect. Etuberosum has been the subject of debate. Juzepczuk and Bukasov (1929) were the first to informally group species in "ser. Etuberosa," which they placed within sect. Petota (then invalidly referred to as sect. Tuberarium [Dunal] Bitter). Bukasov (1939) informally grouped ser. Etuberosa in "Estolonifera," and the remaining tuber-bearing species in "Stolonifera." Bukasov and Kameraz (1959) validated the name ser. Etuberosa Buk. and Kameraz. Correll (1962), D’Arcy (1991), and Hawkes (1990) placed ser. Etuberosa in sect. Petota. Hawkes (1989) validated subsection Estolonifera Hawkes and subsection Stolonifera Hawkes and placed both under sect. Petota. Child (1990) transferred ser. Etuberosa to sectional rank. Chloroplast DNA data (Spooner et al., 1993) and GBSSI (waxy) sequence data (Peralta and Spooner, 2001) of sect. Etuberosum, sect. Petota, Lycopersicon L., and other near relatives in subgenus Potatoe 1) supports sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota as separate clades, 2) shows subsection Estolonifera to be paraphyletic (Spooner et al., 1993), and 3) shows sect. Etuberosum to be sister to the tomato + potato clade.
All three species of Solanum sect. Etuberosum (S. etuberosum, S. fernandezianum, S. palustre) are diploid (2n = 2x = 24), morphologically very similar, and are distinguished by a complex of sometimes overlapping character states. Previous treatments (Correll, 1962; Hawkes, 1990; Montaldo and Sanz, 1962) recognized five species, but Contreras-M. and Spooner (1999) reduced the number of species to three. The distinguishing characters of colors and pubescence are much easier to discern in living material, and dried specimens may be difficult to identify. Solanum fernandezianum and S. palustre always have a conspicuous purple dot on fresh mature seeds that is always absent on S. etuberosum; but this character is not evident from dried seeds, and seeds rarely are present on herbarium material. A hand lens or stereoscopic microscope is needed to distinguish the glabrous to sometimes sparsely puberulent leaves of S. fernandezianum from the usually moderately to more densely pubescent leaves of S. etuberosum and S. palustre. The small anthers and included styles distinguish S. fernandezianum from S. etuberosum and S. palustre, and the length of the calyx acumens usually distinguishes S. etuberosum and S. palustre.
The type of Solanum tuberosum var. polemoniifolium is said to come from Mendoza, Argentina. Mendoza is located on the eastern side of the Andes Mountains northeast of Santiago, Chile. Solanum etuberosum is not known from Mendoza, and it is likely that the type was collected in the Andes Mountains of Chile, southwest of Mendoza. No collection date is provided on the type, but J[ohn] Gillies collected in Argentina and Chile from 1823-1834 (Lanjouw and Stafleu, 1957).
There is confusion regarding numbers on the type of Solanum etuberosum var. antucense. The number "62" appears in the original description, and "62" and "Diar. 715" appear on printed herbarium labels. The number "780" also appears on handwritten labels. Poeppig’s (1834, 1836) personal itineraries do not clarify these numbers. Urban (1896) mentions Poeppig’s Chile collections labeled as “E.F. Poeppig Coll. Pl. Chil. III”, and Diar. Is an abbreviation for the German word Diarien (diaries). Is possible that the number “715” is Poeppig’s original collection number of the approximately 900 collections Poeppig made in Chile. Other numbers may have been placed on his collections by another person.
There also is confusion regarding the locality of "Río Aconcagua". This river is near Viña del Mar and is listed on the type collection of another of Poeppig's collections that is the type of S. palustre (E. F. Poeppig 73 (Diar. 184), and S. etuberosum likely never grew at the low altitude of Viña del Mar. Truvun Leuvu is another name for Trubunleo (C. Martecorena, pers. comm.). Trubunleo is a name for a river (located at 37°23’S, 71°28’W) and a waterfall (located at 37°22’S, 71°30’W [United States Department of Interior, 1967]). It is likely that E. F. Poeppig Coll. pl. Chil. III 62 (Diar. 715) (780) was collected in the Andes Mountains near Antuco (located at 37°20’S, 71°41’). Antuco is an area where the two species co-occur, as documented in S. etuberosum Spooner and Contreras-M. 4489, 4490, S. palustre Spooner and Contreras-M. 4488; see Fig. 1 of Contreras-M. and Spooner, 1999).
E. F. Poeppig Coll. pl. Chil. III 62 (Diar. 715) (780) are mixed collections of S. palustre and S. etuberosum. The S. palustre part originally was named as Solanum palustre var. glabrescens Walp.
D.F.L. von Schlechtendal worked at B until 1933, then at HAL. Material from his herbarium is at B (mainly destroyed), W, and other herbaria (Stafleu and Cowan, 1985) not here observed. It is likely he had access to both B and W specimens.
Instituto Geográfico Militar, Chile Listado de nombres geográficos, Tomo I (A-M), Tomo II (M-Z).
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Pp. 93-118 In: T. Tsuchiya and P.K. Gupta (eds.). Chromosome Engineering in Plants: Genetics, Breeding, Evolution, Part B,. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
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Spooner, D.M., J. Tivang, J. Nienhuis, J.T. Miller, D.S. Douches, & A. Contreras-M 1995. Comparison of four molecular markers in measuring relationships among the wild potato relatives Solanum section Etuberosum (subgenus Potatoe).
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Chloroplast DNA restriction site, isozyme, nuclear RFLP and RAPD data are found in Spooner et al. (1995). GBSSI (waxy) sequence data are found in Peralta and Spooner (1991).